Received Oct 24; Accepted Apr 2. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.
The pattern of evolution through each of these phases may vary considerably among cultures, and retrogression to more atavistic phases may occur during periods of cultural decline and collapse.
However, most cultures develop advances in health care as a response to crises arising from the characteristics of each historical period. Shamanism The earliest forms of intentional healing practices throughout the world have invariably been shamanic in nature.
The shaman harnesses the beliefs of the sick person to assist the body's innate ability to heal itself. In scientific-technological periods of history, this effect becomes known condescendingly as the placebo effect.
Yet regardless of the label given, the mind has potentially potent effects on processes of the physical body.
When the minds of the shaman and the person to be healed focus together on a common belief system and cultural framework, they can work together for the common good and provide an effective healing influence over illness. As the shaman begins to recognize his power over illness and over the minds of his tribe or people, the temptation often arises to use this power for ego enhancement, acquiring wealth, and exerting political and social control.
As human societies transformed from hunter-gatherer tribes into nomadic animal herders and ultimately into farming societies, they became dependent upon fixed territories of land for their survival.
Military-political power arose among individuals and groups most suited to lead armies into battle for defending territory.
These military-political powers latched onto the pre-existing social power and influence of the shamans, and the shamanic traditions came under organized control and regulation.
In ancient Mesopotamia, the powers of the shaman were divided among three specialized functionaries, each of which was regulated by the state, and each of which jealously scrutinized the others' actions so that the prescribed limits of action were never exceeded.
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The three types of practitioner asu, or craftsman skilled in wound healing; ashipu, a specialist in incantations; and baru, or soothsayer would all attend the patient together.
The asu, besides tending to the patient's physical wounds and administering herbs and remedies, would tell the ashipu what he found so that the ashipu could mutter the proper incantations. The baru predicted the future course of the illness based upon omens and signs as they approached the patient's house, giving the other two useful insights into the patient's home and neighborhood environment, perhaps noting any unsanitary conditions, etc.
Many early peoples considered their herbalist-shamans to be gods. Shen Nong, to whom references date from B. Thoth, Isis, Osiris and Imhotep were probably all healer-herbalists who were later considered by ancient Egyptians to be gods.
The shaman-herbalist might have gained great advantage by understanding and acquiring knowledge about the physical effects of plant medicines, while continuing to publicly hold that mumbo-jumbo and special knowledge of incantations and appeals to deities were crucial ingredients of any healing ritual.
As agriculture became the predominant mode of survival in the Middle Eastern and Mediterranean regions, cities with large populations arose to promote trade of agricultural goods and of luxuries demanded by a growing cultured and leisure class.
The efficiencies of the city for trade and commerce resulted in large concentrations of people and unsanitary conditions, eventually leading to severe epidemics. The shaman who relied upon incantations and placebo effects may have provided adequate relief before the era of urbanization, but the phenomenon of epidemics presented a new challenge.History and characteristics of Okinawan longevity food Hiroko Sho Director University of The Air Okinawa Study Center, Okinawa, Japan with mention of the Ryukyu islands appearing in Chinese history texts dating back to AD, elements with medicinal qualities connected with longevity.
History The Compendium of or other characteristics of: chills, fever, perspiration, appetite, thirst, taste, defecation, urination, pain, sleep, menses, leukorrhea. The deer penis is believed to have therapeutic benefits according to traditional Chinese medicine.
Nov 14, · In short, the history of nutrients, foods, herbs and wines in Chinese Medicine is vast and classic texts date back over years ago.
This article will provide a brief overview of the physiology of digestion as it relates to TCM, general nutrition strategies, . The shark fins have been a part of traditional Chinese medicine for centuries.
Shark finning is banned in many countries, but the trade is thriving in Hong Kong and China, where the fins are part of shark fin soup, a dish considered a delicacy, and used in some types of traditional Chinese medicine.
Chinese cuisine is an important part of Chinese culture, which includes cuisine originating from the diverse regions of China, as well as from Chinese people in other parts of the world. Because of the Chinese diaspora and historical power of the country, Chinese cuisine has influenced many other cuisines in Asia, with modifications made to.
See more on The History of Chinese Medicine. General Principals of Chinese Medicinal Cuisine 1. Balance Goji berries is a widely used ingredient in Chinese medicine cuisine Healing herbs or animal parts can be added to the diet .