Communication in individual and collectivist societies essay

Aspects of anthropological methods covered are:

Communication in individual and collectivist societies essay

Judaism as a Group Evolutionary Strategy: Toward an Evolutionary Theory of Anti-Semitism: SummaryReviewsOrdering information George Michael, a political scientist at the University of Virginia-Wise, has written an academic article summarizing my writing on Judaism. It also reviews some of the criticisms leveled at my work, and contains an interview with me.

Legitimate Scholarship or the Intellectualization of Anti-Semitism? Journal of Church and State, 48 4— Dialog between Joey Kurtzman of http: Is Kevin MacDonald Right? Originally published in by Praeger Publishers.

Chapter 1 develops the basic theoretical perspective of the book, including especially the idea of a group evolutionary strategy. Group evolutionary strategies are proposed to be theoretically unconstrained on a variety of dimensions, and the remaining chapters flesh out the specific characteristics of Judaism as a group evolutionary strategy.

Group strategies are viewed as experiments in living which can be developed and maintained by purely cultural processes, although a later chapter discusses how variation in evolved systems may predispose individuals to form cohesive, genetically exclusive groups.

Of critical importance are within-group social controls and their rationalizing ideology which 1. Chapter 2 discusses the evidence from modern studies on population genetic differences between Jews and gentiles.

Communication in individual and collectivist societies essay

This material is relevant to the hypothesis that Judaism represents a group strategy which is fairly but not completely closed to penetration from gentile gene pools. The data indicate that Jews have remained genetically distinct from the groups they have lived among despite having lived among them for centuries.

In addition, Jewish populations in very diverse areas have significantly more Communication in individual and collectivist societies essay commonality than is the case between Jews and the gentile populations they have lived among for centuries. This is illustrated in the following figure from Kobyliansky and Micle Jewish populations of the world: Genetic likeness and differences.

Annals of Human Biology 9: Here is a recent New York Times article on Jewish population genetics. The article is based on a study of genetic distance between Jewish and non-Jewish groups titled, "Jewish and Middle Eastern non-Jewish populations share a common pool of Y-chromosome biallelic haplotypes," by M.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences May 9, This page includes a figure from the Hammer et al. Chapter 3 discusses some preliminary issues which are important for the general theory that Judaism constitutes an example of a religion that can be viewed as a group evolutionary strategy.

There is a pronounced tendency toward idealizing endogamy and condemning exogamy apparent in the writings of the Tanakh. The importance of consanguineous marriages and extended kinship relationships is also very apparent in these writings, especially for understanding the activities of the patriarchs.

It is shown that much of the ideology of Judaism as an evolutionary strategy for maintaining genetic and cultural segregation in a Diaspora context is apparent in the writings of Priestly stratum of the Tanakh. There is scholarly agreement that this material was written by Israelite priests during the period of the Babylonian exile.

It is proposed, therefore, that Judaism as an experiment in living dates from this period 6th-5th centuries B. Chapter 4 discusses those aspects of Jewish religious ideology and practice that have facilitated the genetic and cultural separation of Jews and gentiles, and is thus relevant to the hypothesis that Judaism is a self-chosen, genetically fairly closed evolutionary strategy.

Of the hundreds of human groups in the ancient world, Judaism was the only one that avoided the powerful tendencies toward cultural and genetic assimilation characteristic of Western societies. Judaism as a group strategy depends on the development of social controls reinforcing group identity and preventing high levels of genetic admixture from surrounding groups.

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This genetic separation has been facilitated by a variety of cultural practices: All of these practices date from very early stages of the diaspora.

This chapter surveys these ideologies and behaviors, particularly their role in severely limiting the numbers of gentile converts to Judaism and preventing intermarriage between Jews and gentiles. Chapter 5 reviews evidence for resource and reproductive competition between Jews and gentiles, as well as for the proposition that anti-Semitism has been strongest among those gentile groups most in competition with Jews.

Evidence is reviewed indicating that Jews were commonly utilized as an intermediary group between a ruling elite and especially alien elites and the native population.

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In these situations the elite gentile group actively encouraged and profited from Jewish economic interests to the detriment of other sectors of the native population.

Chapter 6 discusses data indicating the importance of kin- based cooperation and altruism within Judaism, its role in resource competition with gentiles, and its importance in maintaining cohesion within the Jewish community. Data are presented indicating that Jewish economic activities have often been characterized by a high degree of nepotism and within-group charity which is central to conceptualizing Judaism as an evolutionary strategy.

Group rather than individual interests have been of primary importance throughout Jewish history, so that, e. Further, it is shown that within-group charity and altruism have been facilitated by strong social controls within traditional Jewish communities which enforced a high level of within-group altruism.

Traditional Jewish communities were also characterized by strong social controls against Jews who cooperated with gentiles against Jewish interests or who patronized gentile businesses or aided gentiles in economic activities.Before there was Phonics or Whole Language, there was the "Alphabet method," sometimes called "syllabification," where students were taught the letters of the alphabet followed by rote memorization and then combination of simple two-letter syllables, like BA BE BI BO BU and AB EB IB OB UB.

Buy Cheap Distinction Between Individualistic and Collectivist Cultures Essay According to Hofstede, individualism is the types of society where we find have no or very little ties between individuals.

Individualistic vs. Collectivistic Cultures: Differences & Communication Styles collectivistic societies and how they impact communication . In a collectivist society, people put bunch objectives and needs in front of their own individual wishes. Indeed, this worth is now and then so much a piece of the society that an individual may not recognize particular and group needs, as the survival and cohesiveness of the gathering is of vital vitality.

Individualist vs Collectivist Cultures Essay example Power Distance Index (PDI) This dimension expresses the accepted and expected distribution of power. In cultures with low power distance, people expect to take part in the process of decision-making. In a collectivist culture, the interest of the group prevails over the interest of the individual.

People are integrated into strong, cohesive ingroups that continue throughout a lifetime to protect in exchange for unquestioning loyalty (Hofstede, ).

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