The impact of air pollution on health and economy

The health effects and costs of air pollution: The Clean Air Act of was signed into law by President Richard Nixon and gave the Environmental Protection Agency created under the same administration the authority to regulate emissions of hazardous air pollutants from fixed and mobile sources. Two decades later President George H.

The impact of air pollution on health and economy

But the US Environmental Protection Agency EPA will almost certainly be back in court once the plan is actually put in to action over the next few months.

The fossil fuel industry is justifiably concerned about the EPA receiving a federal mandate to reduce carbon pollution. Once it receives a mandate, the EPA has proven itself to be quite effective at reducing air pollution.

Furthermore, large reductions in particulate pollution in the s have been shown to be a direct effect of EPA regulation Chay et al ; Chay and Greenstone Optimal pollution Now that air pollution in many parts of the US has declined significantly, an important policy question becomes how much further reduction is desirable?

So there must be some level of pollution where the benefits justify the costs. The problem is finding this optimal amount of toxic carbon monoxide. Why is it so hard to work out when the benefits of pollution justify the costs? The benefits are fairly straightforward to measure — kilowatts of energy, laptops produced, miles travelled, etc.

But measuring the costs is much more challenging. We know that air pollution damages human health but just how big is this damage?

Economic Effects of Air Pollution - Air (U.S. National Park Service)

We could look at health outcomes in areas with lots of pollution but people might be getting sick for reasons that are not directly caused by pollution — lower incomes or higher unemployment might be higher in these areas.

A great example of this approach is a paper by Chen et al In China, from tohomes and offices were provided with free winter heating through the provision of free coal for fuel boilers. However, due to budgetary limitations, this subsidy was only extended to homes located north of the Huai River which approximately bisects China.

Conclusion — long-term exposure to particulates kills. A similar study examined the decision to ban the sale of coal in Dublin, Ireland in Many of these natural experiment studies have focused on extremely large reductions in particulates and on long-term outcomes such as deaths.

It has proven much more difficult to estimate the effect of relatively small reductions in particulates on short-term outcomes such as illness and hospitalisation. But this is exactly the type of information that is needed for setting pollution standards in relatively low-pollution environments.

One of the major confounding issues in identifying the short-term effect of particulates on health, especially in the EU and the US, is that most major pollutants are highly correlated. The kinds of factories and vehicles that produce one pollutant also produce a lot of another.

For example, in the city of Phoenix, Arizona, the correlation coefficient between carbon monoxide and particulates pollution is 0.

The market impacts of outdoor air pollution are projected to lead to global economic costs that gradually increase to 1% of global GDP by Costs related to additional health expenditures and labour productivity losses dominate in the long run. the impact of existing levels of pollution; and/or; the estimated beneficial impact of a policy or program to reduce emissions and improve the air quality. Economic assessments are used to evaluate the cost and the economic impact of a policy or regulation related to air quality management. the topic of air pollution from a Health in All Policies perspective, reflecting the best available evidence from a health, economics and policy angle and identifies future research areas and policy options.

In a study of the state of California, Neidell finds that the correlation between nitrogen dioxide and particulates is 0. Since particulates are so highly correlated with other often more dangerous pollutants, it can become a challenge when we want to start assigning blame to particulates.

In fact, many academic studies that look at the effect of particulates alongside other pollutants find that particulates have no effect on health outcomes. For example, in the Neidell study mentioned above, he finds no effect of particulate pollution on hospitalisations for asthma among children but carbon monoxide has a large effect on emergency room admissions.

Is this because particulates are not particularly bad or is this just an example of multicollinearity?The market impacts of outdoor air pollution are projected to lead to global economic costs that gradually increase to 1% of global GDP by Costs related to additional health expenditures and labour productivity losses dominate in the long run.

The Clean Air Act protects many Americans from pollution-related health problems and premature death, and improves the health and productivity of the U.S.

work force. The Impact of Air Pollution on Health, Economy, Environment and Agricultural Sources Edited by Mohamed Khallaf The Impact of Air Pollution on Health, Economy, Environment and Agricultural Sources Edited by Mohamed Khallaf.

The impact of air pollution on health and economy

Jul 31,  · Environmental Effects on Public Health: An Economic Perspective. In this article we critically review the economic literature on the effects of environmental changes on public health, in both the developed and the developing world. Health costs are considered to be incurred due to adverse effects of air pollution on health i.

Sep 14,  · Air pollution caused by energy production in the U.S.

Economic Effects of Air Pollution - Air (U.S. National Park Service)

caused at least $ billion in damages in the year alone, a new analysis concludes — but while the number sounds grim, it’s also a sign of improvement. Economic Effects of Air Pollution Park visitation is largely dependent on protection of natural and scenic resources that draw visitors to national parks in the first place.

Economics gives us a way to compare the possible benefits of a policy with its possible costs.

Environmental Effects on Public Health: An Economic Perspective